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TAPPI T 1214

Standard:

TAPPI

Method:

TAPPI T 1214

Title:

Interrelation of reflectance, R0; reflectivity, R; TAPPI
opacity, C0.89; scattering, s; and absorption, k

Scope

The interrelationships found in TAPPI T 1214 are particularly useful in predicting the effect upon opacity when a change occurs in either the basis weight or the reflectivity of a sheet of paper. These interrelationships can also be used to evaluate relative contributions of different pulps, fillers and pigments to optical properties. Extensions of these procedures that are cited in the references can be used to evaluate multilayer structures such as coated paper or coated board.

Significance

The Kubelka and Munk theory of light scattering was first published in 1931. The mathematical relationships between the optical properties of paper and the sheet thickness−based on derivations of the Kubelka and Munk equations concerning the reflection of light from diffusing media were first shown by Steele with a series of charts relating the various measurable properties. In a detailed study, Judd later investigated the Kubelka and Munk theory as applied to paper to discover the magnitude of departures from theory, and concluded that “except for deviations of less than one percent, the Kubelka and Munk theory applies to paper; the two constants of the theory, reflectivity, R∞, and coefficient of scatter, S, yield a useful description of the material of which paper is made.”

 

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